From the 200s through the 1100s, there was a series of invasions by various tribes from the north, including the Magyars and the Saxons.The northern region developed into a principality called Transylvania, the south into a principality called Walachia, and the east into Moldavia.
The German population has also decreased significantly.
In the 1980s, Ceaucescu's government charged citizens large sums for permission to leave the country, a policy Germans felt was aimed specifically at them.
The three regions—Walachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania—are relatively culturally uniform.
An exception is the Hungarian community in Transylvania, which has its own language and traditions and considers itself Hungarian.
The remainder is made up of Germans, Ukrainians, and others.
Estimates of the Roma population range from 400,000 to one million; it is difficult to pinpoint because of the Roma's nomadic lifestyle.
The Carpathian Mountains cover about one-third of the country; they surround the Transylvanian Plateau and divide it from the other two main regions: Moldavia in the northeast and Walachia in the south.
The Transylvanian Alps in the central region contain the highest peak, Mount Moldoveanu.
In 1601, the principalities of Moldavia, Walachia, and Transylvania were united for the first time under Prince Michael the Brave.
During Michael's reign, Romania maintained a degree of sovereignty, but after his death, the Turks again dominated the region.
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